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    Nevertheless, the -mander suffix has been applied to particular malapportionments. Sometimes political representatives use both gerrymandering and malapportionment to try to maintain power.

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    The caricature satirizes the bizarre shape of a district in Essex County, Massachusettsas a dragon-like "monster".

    Federalist newspaper editors and others at the time likened the district shape to a salamander, and the word gerrymander was a blend of that word and Governor Gerry's last name. The word gerrymander originally written Gerry-mander was used for the first time in the Boston Gazette on 26 March When mapped, one of the contorted districts in the Boston area was said to resemble the shape of a mythological salamander.

    The redistricting was a notable success. Although in the election both the Massachusetts House and governorship were won by Federalists by a comfortable margin and cost Gerry his job, the redistricted state senate remained firmly in Democratic-Republican hands. Historians widely believe that the Federalist newspaper editors Nathan Haleand Benjamin and John Russell coined the term, but the historical record does not have definitive evidence as to who created or uttered the word for the first time.

    This cartoon was most likely drawn by Elkanah Tisdalean early 19th-century painter, designer, and engraver who was living in Boston at the time. Gerrymandering soon began to be used to describe not only the original Massachusetts example, but also other cases of district shape manipulation for partisan gain in other states. According to the Oxford English Dictionarythe word's acceptance was marked by its publication in a dictionary and in an encyclopedia From time to time, other names are given the "-mander" suffix to tie a particular effort to a particular politician or group.

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    Societies whose legislatures use a single-winner electoral system are the most likely to have political parties that gerrymander for advantage. In proportional-election systemswhere political parties are represented in proportion to the total numbers of votes they receive, gerrymandering has little or less significance. Some countries, such as Australia, Canadaand the UK, authorize non-partisan organizations to set constituency boundaries in an attempt to prevent gerrymandering.

    Gerrymandering is most common in countries where elected politicians are responsible for defining constituency boundaries. They have an obvious and immediate interest in the outcome of the process. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. November Learn how and when to remove this template message This satirical map reflects the origin of the word "gerrymander", by Elkanah Tisdale in The primary goals of gerrymandering are to maximize the effect of supporters' votes and to minimize the effect of opponents' votes.

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    A partisan gerry mander's main purpose is to influence not only the districting statute but the entire corpus of legislative decisions enacted in its path. By "cracking" districts, a political party would be able to maintain, or gain, legislative control by ensuring that the opposing party's voters are not the majority in specific districts.

    When the party controlling the districting process has a statewide majority, packing is usually not necessary to attain partisan advantage; the minority party can generally be "cracked" everywhere. Packing is therefore more likely to be used for partisan advantage when the party controlling the districting process has a statewide minority, because by forfeiting a few districts packed with the opposition, cracking can be used in forming the remaining districts.

    This is often employed against politicians who represent multiple urban areas, in which larger cities will be removed from the district in order to make the district more rural. These tactics are typically combined in some form, creating a few "forfeit" seats for packed voters of one type in order to secure more seats and greater representation for voters of another type. This results in candidates of one party the one responsible for the gerrymandering winning by small majorities in most of the districts, and another party winning by a large majority in only a few of the districts.

    Examples of gerrymandered districts[ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification. November The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this articlediscuss the issue on the talk pageor create a new articleas appropriate.

    June Learn how and when to remove this template message North Carolina's 12th congressional district between and was an example of packing. The district has predominantly African-American residents who vote for Democrats. The district shown was radically redrawn by California's non-partisan commission after the census. California's 11th congressional district featured long, strained projections and counter-projections of other districts, achieving mild but reliable packing.

    The district comprised a selection of people and communities favourable to the Republican Party. It was redrawn from the version shown after the census. Bi-partisan incumbent gerrymandering produced California's 38th congressional districthome to Grace Napolitanoa Democratwho ran unopposed in This district was redrawn by California's non-partisan commission after the census.

    Texas' controversial partisan gerrymander produced Texas District 22 for former Rep. Tom DeLaya Republican. A packed seat of Republicans based on past results of its many voting districts, it features a two necks and a counter-projection. The odd shapes — distended projections and non-natural feature-based wiggly boundaries — of California Senate districts in southern California have led to complaints of gerrymandering.

    Illinois's 4th congressional district has the moniker "the earmuffs" and amounts to packing of two mainly Hispanic areas.

    The predominantly Democratic city of Salt Lake City was connected to predominantly Republican eastern and southern Utah through a thin sliver of land running through Utah County. Nevertheless, Matheson continued to be re-elected. Inthe legislature created new congressional districts that combined conservative rural areas with more urban areas to dilute Democratic votes.

    Illinois's 17th congressional district in the western portion of the state was gerrymandered: It was redrawn in Maryland's 3rd congressional district since Maryland's 3rd congressional district was listed in the top ten of the most gerrymandered districts in the United States by The Washington Post in North Carolina's 4th congressional district since North Carolina's 4th congressional district encompasses parts of Raleigh, Hillsborough, and the entirety of Chapel Hill.

    The district is considered to be one of the most gerrymandered districts in North Carolina and the United States as a whole. Redelineation of Selangor before election in Cracking or homogenization of state electoral districts in Selangor, Malaysia the state which surrounds the capital.

    The redrawing shown broke the electoral cohesion and urban exclusivity of a city. The bulk of Kajang is one voting district acquiring two long projections that are rural and semi-rural and a projection into a neighbouring city. The rest of the city proper is split between three other voting districts also containing rural areas.

    The usual Malay term for state electoral areas is DUNs. Effects[ edit ] Gerrymandering is effective because of the wasted vote effect. Wasted votes are votes that did not contribute to electing a candidate, either because they were in excess of the bare minimum needed for victory or because the candidate lost. By moving geographic boundaries, the incumbent party packs opposition voters into a few districts they will already win, wasting the extra votes.

    Other districts are more tightly constructed with the opposition party allowed a bare minority count, thereby wasting all the minority votes for the losing candidate. These districts constitute the majority of districts and are drawn to produce a result favoring the incumbent party. When the parties win district elections in rough proportion to their electoral popularity, the efficiency gap is near zero.

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    District Court in ruled against the drawing of Wisconsin legislative districts. In the election for the state legislature, that gap in wasted votes meant that one party had To minimize the risk of demographic or political shifts swinging a district to the opposition, politicians can create more packed districts, leading to more comfortable margins in unpacked ones.

    Effect on electoral competition[ edit ] How gerrymandering can influence electoral results on a non-proportional system. For a state with 3 equally sized districts, 15 voters and 2 parties: Plum squares and Orange circles. In acreating 3 mixed-type districts yields a 3—0 win to Plum—a disproportional result considering the statewide 9: In bOrange wins the urban district while Plum wins the rural districts—the 2—1 result reflects the statewide vote ratio.

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    In cgerrymandering techniques ensure a 2—1 win to the statewide minority Orange party. Some political science research suggests that, contrary to common belief, gerrymandering does not decrease electoral competition, and can even increase it.

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    Some say that, rather than packing the voters of their party into uncompetitive districts, party leaders tend to prefer to spread their party's voters into multiple districts, so that their party can win a larger number of races.

    This may lead to increased competition. Instead of gerrymandering, some researchers find that other factors, such as partisan polarization and the incumbency advantage, have driven the recent decreases in electoral competition.

    While gerrymandering may not decrease electoral competition in all cases, there are certainly instances where gerrymandering does reduce such competition. One state in which gerrymandering has arguably had an adverse effect on electoral competition is California. Ina bipartisan redistricting effort redrew congressional district lines in ways that all but guaranteed incumbent victories; as a result, California saw only one congressional seat change hands between and In response to this obvious gerrymandering, a referendum in California gave the power to redraw congressional district lines to the California Citizens Redistricting Commissionwhich had been created to draw California State Senate and Assembly districts by another referendum in In stark contrast to the redistricting efforts that followed the census, the redistricting commission has created a number of the most competitive congressional districts in the country.

    For example, inaccording to political scientists Norman Ornstein and Thomas Mannonly four challengers were able to defeat incumbent members of the U. Congress, the lowest number in modern American history. Mann, a Senior Fellow of Governance Studies at the Brookings Institutionhas also noted that "Redistricting is a deeply political process, with incumbents actively seeking to minimize the risk to themselves via bipartisan gerrymanders or to gain additional seats for their party via partisan gerrymanders ".

    Gerrymandering of state legislative districts can effectively guarantee an incumbent's victory by 'shoring up' a district with higher levels of partisan support, without disproportionately benefiting a particular political party.

    This can be highly problematic from a governance perspective, because forming districts to ensure high levels of partisanship often leads to higher levels of partisanship in legislative bodies.

    If a substantial number of districts are designed to be polarized, then those districts' representation will also likely act in a heavily partisan manner, which can create and perpetuate partisan gridlock. This demonstrates that gerrymandering can have a deleterious effect on the principle of democratic accountability.

    If districts become increasingly stretched out, candidates must pay increased costs for transportation and trying to develop and present campaign advertising across a district.

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    Less descriptive representation[ edit ] Gerrymandering also has significant effects on the representation received by voters in gerrymandered districts. Because gerrymandering can be designed to increase the number of wasted votes among the electorate, the relative representation of particular groups can be drastically altered from their actual share of the voting population. This effect can significantly prevent a gerrymandered system from achieving proportional and descriptive representationas the winners of elections are increasingly determined by who is drawing the districts rather than the preferences of the voters.

    Gerrymandering may be advocated to improve representation within the legislature among otherwise underrepresented minority groups by packing them into a single district. This can be controversial, as it may lead to those groups' remaining marginalised in the government as they become confined to a single district.

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    Candidates outside that district no longer need to represent them to win elections. As an example, much of the redistricting conducted in the United States in the early s involved the intentional creation of additional "majority-minority" districts where racial minorities such as African Americans were packed into the majority.
    The trail closely follows US 31 and Lake Michigan much of the way and there are many good lake views.

    The Charlevoix Community Pool is near the start of the segment. To the east the area around Nine Mile Point is especially scenic and there are other good places to enjoy the view. This segment consists of five miles of asphalt near US There are some panoramic views of Lake Michigan and the business district called The Village at Bay Harbor A is a short ride from the trail.

    There are good parking and recreational opportunities at both Bay Harbor parks as well as in the Village District with its many amenities. A parallel equestrian trail may be built in the future. East Park is an excellent intermediate trailhead. It was closed for remediation of contamination problems caused in the cement making process dating back to the days when the Bay Harbor area was a large cement-making plant. The new park has been reconfigured and reopened and is now one of the most beautiful parks of its kind in the country.

    Travelers can now proceed along the railroad grade above Little Traverse Bay without using the busy US 31 shoulder. This segment runs feet or more above the bay and is widely regarded as the most scenic on the entire Wheelway and surely one of the most beautiful in the country.

    There are numerous turnouts with benches where trail users can stop and enjoy the view. This section has also seen the erection of two more Little Traverse Wheelway arches like the one further east along the Wheelway. Also check out the metal sculpture of a big wheel bicycle in the new park. The History Museum is a must stop for those interested in the history of the Little Traverse region including the role played by the original Little Traverse Wheelway.

    The bicycle arrived here along with the railroad and the new wave of settlers who came for economic and religious reasons. This segment also goes through the summer community of Bay View along the salmon-colored sidewalk. The overlook building honors the memory of Fred Fettis and Neal McCue, two longtime trails advocates who were instrumental in the development of the Wheelway and served on the TOMTC board of directors.

    TOMTC is working on a plan to improve the parking lot and grounds in this area and perhaps establish an intermediate trailhead. There may also be a park at the nearby mouth of Tannery Creek in the future. The overlook is a good place to stop and view the bay and is a popular picnic lunch spot for people working in the area.

    TOMTC commissioned the artist to paint the mural in the fall of A chain link fence marks the boundary of the Petoskey State Park. The trail continues through a wooded scenic 1-mile segment that runs through a young oak and white pine forest to M The property was purchased through the generous donations of TOMTC supporters and a number of organizations, including the Petoskey Rotary.

    A fountain and bench in front of the Trail Center are a generous gift to trail users from the Litzenberger family. The Trail Center is open 9 — 4: A porta john is available for trail users during the summer and fall months. The trail then follows the highway, sometimes just off the paved shoulder, and sometimes off-road. The Harbor Springs trailhead is near the ball fields at Lake and Hoyt on the east side of town, where restrooms and parking are available.

    Local streets can be used to ride into Harbor Springs, a wonderful destination with beautiful views, excellent restaurants, and a multitude of things to do. This route can have a great deal of automobile traffic during the tourist season but should be generally safe for adult cyclists. Be especially careful in riding on the twisting portions through the forest.

    Riders should ride single file on the far right side of the road.

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