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  • Perfect Elastic Collision / No Final Velocity Given
  • How to use the shortcut for solving elastic collisions
  • Entrepreneurship is a Calling
  • Elastic and Inelastic Collisions
  • Impulse - Linear Momentum, Conservation, Inelastic & Elastic Collisions, Force - Physics Problems
  • Bowling Ball Elastic Collisions
  • Partial-Pressure Suits
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    Diamond crystallizes in the cubic system. Amorphous carbon is completely isotropic. Carbon nanotubes are among the most anisotropic materials known. Allotropes Atomic carbon is a very short-lived species and, therefore, carbon is stabilized in various multi-atomic structures with different molecular configurations called allotropes.

    The three relatively well-known allotropes of carbon are amorphous carbongraphiteand diamond. Once considered exotic, fullerenes are nowadays commonly synthesized and used in research; they include buckyballs[29] [30] carbon nanotubes[31] carbon nanobuds [32] and nanofibers. As ofgraphene appears to be the strongest material ever tested. It could also be used to safely store hydrogen for use in a hydrogen based engine in cars. The amorphous form is an assortment of carbon atoms in a non-crystalline, irregular, glassy state, not held in a crystalline macrostructure.

    It is present as a powder, and is the main constituent of substances such as charcoallampblack soot and activated carbon. At normal pressures, carbon takes the form of graphite, in which each atom is bonded trigonally to three others in a plane composed of fused hexagonal rings, just like those in aromatic hydrocarbons.

    How to use the shortcut for solving elastic collisions

    This gives graphite its softness and its cleaving properties the sheets slip easily past one another. This results in a lower bulk electrical conductivity for carbon than for most metals. The delocalization also accounts for the energetic stability of graphite over diamond at room temperature. Some allotropes of carbon: At very high pressures, carbon forms the more compact allotrope, diamondhaving nearly twice the density of graphite.

    Here, each atom is bonded tetrahedrally to four others, forming a 3-dimensional network of puckered six-membered rings of atoms. Diamond has the same cubic structure as silicon and germaniumand because of the strength of the carbon-carbon bondsit is the hardest naturally occurring substance measured by resistance to scratching.

    The bottom left corner of the phase diagram for carbon has not been scrutinized experimentally. The missing or additional atoms warp the sheets into spheres, ellipses, or cylinders. The properties of fullerenes split into buckyballs, buckytubes, and nanobuds have not yet been fully analyzed and represent an intense area of research in nanomaterials. The names "fullerene" and "buckyball" are given after Richard Buckminster Fullerpopularizer of geodesic domeswhich resemble the structure of fullerenes.

    The buckyballs are fairly large molecules formed completely of carbon bonded trigonally, forming spheroids the best-known and simplest is the soccerball-shaped C60 buckminsterfullerene.

    It consists of a low-density cluster-assembly of carbon atoms strung together in a loose three-dimensional web, in which the atoms are bonded trigonally in six- and seven-membered rings. Carbon in this modification is linear with sp orbital hybridizationand is a polymer with alternating single and triple bonds.

    Q-carbon is reported to exhibit ferromagetism, fluorescenceand a hardness superior to diamonds. Penny is included for scale. Carbon is abundant in the Sunstarscometsand in the atmospheres of most planets.

    PAHs seem to have been formed "a couple of billion years" after the Big Bangare widespread throughout the universe, and are associated with new stars and exoplanets. This is much more than the amount of carbon in the oceans or atmosphere below. Hydrocarbons such as coalpetroleumand natural gas contain carbon as well. Various estimates put this carbon betweenGt[55] or 3, Gt.

    According to one source, in the period from to about gigatonnes of carbon were released as carbon dioxide to the atmosphere from burning of fossil fuels. Natural diamonds occur in the rock kimberlitefound in ancient volcanic "necks", or "pipes". Diamonds are now also being recovered from the ocean floor off the Cape of Good Hope. These asteroids have not yet been directly sampled by scientists. The asteroids can be used in hypothetical space-based carbon miningwhich may be possible in the future, but is currently technologically impossible.

    Isotopes of carbon Isotopes of carbon are atomic nuclei that contain six protons plus a number of neutrons varying from 2 to Carbon has two stable, naturally occurring isotopes.

    Carbon 14C is a naturally occurring radioisotopecreated in the upper atmosphere lower stratosphere and upper troposphere by interaction of nitrogen with cosmic rays. The amount of 14C in the atmosphere and in living organisms is almost constant, but decreases predictably in their bodies after death.
    Neutron sources Neutrons may be emitted from nuclear fusion or nuclear fissionor from other nuclear reactions such as radioactive decay or particle interactions with cosmic rays or within particle accelerators.

    Large neutron sources are rare, and usually limited to large-sized devices such as nuclear reactors or particle acceleratorsincluding the Spallation Neutron Source. Neutron radiation from fission[ edit ] The neutrons in nuclear reactors are generally categorized as slow thermal neutrons or fast neutrons depending on their energy.

    Thermal neutrons are similar in energy distribution the Maxwell—Boltzmann distribution to a gas in thermodynamic equilibrium but are easily captured by atomic nuclei and are the primary means by which elements undergo nuclear transmutation.

    To achieve an effective fission chain reaction, neutrons produced during fission must be captured by fissionable nuclei, which then split, releasing more neutrons. In most fission reactor designs, the nuclear fuel is not sufficiently refined to absorb enough fast neutrons to carry on the chain reaction, due to the lower cross section for higher-energy neutrons, so a neutron moderator must be introduced to slow the fast neutrons down to thermal velocities to permit sufficient absorption.

    Common neutron moderators include graphiteordinary light water and heavy water. A few reactors fast neutron reactors and all nuclear weapons rely on fast neutrons.

    This requires certain changes in the design and in the required nuclear fuel. The element beryllium is particularly useful due to its ability to act as a neutron reflector or lens. This lets smaller quantities of fissile material be used and is a primary technical development that led to the creation of neutron bombs. Most of them activate a nucleus before reaching the ground; a few react with nuclei in the air. The reactions with nitrogen lead to the formation of carbonwidely used in radiocarbon dating.

    Uses[ edit ] Cold, thermal and hot neutron radiation is most commonly used in scattering and diffraction experiments, to assess the properties and the structure of materials in crystallographycondensed matter physicsbiologysolid state chemistrymaterials sciencegeologymineralogy and related sciences.

    Neutron radiation is also used in select facilities to treat cancerous tumors due to its highly penetrating and damaging nature to cellular structure. Neutrons can also be used for imaging of industrial parts termed neutron radiography when using film, neutron radioscopy when taking a digital image, such as through image plates, and neutron tomography for three-dimensional images.

    Neutron imaging is commonly used in the nuclear industry, the space and aerospace industry, as well as the high reliability explosives industry. Ionization mechanisms and properties[ edit ] Neutron radiation is often called indirectly ionizing radiation. It does not ionize atoms in the same way that charged particles such as protons and electrons do exciting an electronbecause neutrons have no charge.

    However, neutron interactions are largely ionizing, for example when neutron absorption results in gamma emission and the gamma ray photon subsequently removes an electron from an atom, or a nucleus recoiling from a neutron interaction is ionized and causes more traditional subsequent ionization in other atoms.

    Because neutrons are uncharged, they are more penetrating than alpha radiation or beta radiation. In some cases they are more penetrating than gamma radiationwhich is impeded in materials of high atomic number.

    In materials of low atomic number such as hydrogen, a low energy gamma ray may be more penetrating than a high energy neutron. Health hazards and protection[ edit ] In health physics neutron radiation is a type of radiation hazard.

    Another, sometimes more severe hazard of neutron radiation, is neutron activationthe ability of neutron radiation to induce radioactivity in most substances it encounters, including the body tissues. This process accounts for much of the radioactive material released by the detonation of a nuclear weapon.

    It is also a problem in nuclear fission and nuclear fusion installations as it gradually renders the equipment radioactive such that eventually it must be replaced and disposed of as low-level radioactive waste. Neutron radiation protection relies on radiation shielding. Due to the high kinetic energy of neutrons, this radiation is considered the most severe and dangerous radiation to the whole body when it is exposed to external radiation sources.

    In comparison to conventional ionizing radiation based on photons or charged particles, neutrons are repeatedly bounced and slowed absorbed by light nuclei so hydrogen -rich material is more effective at shielding than iron nuclei.

    The light atoms serve to slow down the neutrons by elastic scattering so they can then be absorbed by nuclear reactions. However, gamma radiation is often produced in such reactions, so additional shielding must be provided to absorb it. Care must be taken to avoid using nuclei that undergo fission or neutron capture that causes radioactive decay of nuclei, producing gamma rays. Neutrons readily pass through most material, and hence the absorbed dose measured in Grays from a given amount of radiation is low, but interact enough to cause biological damage.

    The most effective shielding materials are wateror hydrocarbons like polyethylene or paraffin wax.

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    Water-extended polyester WEP is effective as a shielding wall in harsh environments due to its high hydrogen content and resistance to fire, allowing it to be used in a range of nuclear, health physics, and defense industries.

    Boron is also an excellent neutron absorber and also undergoes some neutron scattering. Boron decays into carbon or helium and produces virtually no gamma radiation with boron carbidea shield commonly used where concrete would be cost prohibitive.

    Commercially, tanks of water or fuel oil, concrete, gravel, and B4C are common shields that surround areas of large amounts of neutron flux, e. Boron-impregnated silica glass, standard borosilicate glasshigh-boron steel, paraffin, and Plexiglas have niche uses.

    Because neutrons that strike the hydrogen nucleus protonor deuteron impart energy to that nucleus, they in turn break from their chemical bonds and travel a short distance before stopping.

    Such hydrogen nuclei are high linear energy transfer particles, and are in turn stopped by ionization of the material they travel through. Consequently, in living tissue, neutrons have a relatively high relative biological effectivenessand are roughly ten times more effective at causing biological damage compared to gamma or beta radiation of equivalent energy exposure. These neutrons can either cause cells to change in their functionality or to completely stop reproducing, causing damage to the body over time.

    Effects on materials[ edit ] High-energy neutrons damage and degrade materials over time; bombardment of materials with neutrons creates collision cascades that can produce point defects and dislocations in the material, the creation of which is the primary driver behind microstructural changes occurring over time in materials exposed to radiation.

    At high neutron fluences this can lead to embrittlement of metals and other materials, and to swelling in some of them. This poses a problem for nuclear reactor vessels and significantly limits their lifetime which can be somewhat prolonged by controlled annealing of the vessel, reducing the number of the built-up dislocations.

    Graphite moderator blocks are especially susceptible to this effect, known as Wigner effectand must be annealed periodically. The Windscale fire was caused by a mishap during such an annealing operation.

    Radiation damage to materials occurs as a result of the interaction of an energetic incident particle a neutron, or otherwise with a lattice atom in the material.

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    The collision causes a massive transfer of kinetic energy to the lattice atom, which is displaced from its lattice site, becoming what is known as the primary knock-on atom PKA. Because the PKA is surrounded by other lattice atoms, its displacement and passage through the lattice results in many subsequent collisions and the creations of additional knock-on atoms, producing what is known as the collision cascade or displacement cascade.

    The knock-on atoms lose energy with each collision, and terminate as interstitialseffectively creating a series of Frenkel defects in the lattice. Heat is also created as a result of the collisions from electronic energy lossas are possibly transmuted atoms. The magnitude of the damage is such that a single 1 MeV neutron creating a PKA in an iron lattice produces approximately Frenkel pairs.

    Those that do not or cannot leave vacancies, which causes a local rise in the vacancy concentration far above that of the equilibrium concentration. These vacancies tend to migrate as a result of thermal diffusion towards vacancy sinks i. The main effect of irradiation in a lattice is the significant and persistent flux of defects to sinks in what is known as the defect wind.

    Vacancies can also annihilate by combining with one another to form dislocation loops and later, lattice voids. This leads to an effect called radiation enhanced diffusionwhich leads to microstructural evolution of the material over time. The mechanisms leading to the evolution of the microstructure are many, may vary with temperature, flux, and fluence, and are a subject of extensive study [8] Radiation-induced segregation results from the aforementioned flux of vacancies to sinks, implying a flux of lattice atoms away from sinks: These fluxes may therefore lead to depletion of alloying elements in the vicinity of sinks.

    For the flux of interstitials introduced by the cascade, the effect is reversed: If these vacancy concentration expand in three dimensions, a void forms. By definition, voids are under vacuum, but may became gas-filled in the case of alpha-particle radiation helium or if the gas is produced as a result of transmutation reactions. The void is then called a bubble, and leads to dimensional instability swelling of parts subject to radiation.

    Swelling presents a major long-term design problem, especially in reactor components made out of stainless steel. Instead, the loops form on particular lattice planes, and can lead to irradiation-induced growtha phenomenon distinct from swellingbut that can also produce significant dimensional changes in an alloy.

    The defect clusters, dislocation loops, voids, bubbles, and precipitates produced as a result of radiation in a material all contribute to the strengthening and embrittlement loss of ductility in the material [12] Embrittlement is of particular concern for the material comprising the reactor pressure vessel, where as a result the energy required to fracture the vessel decreases significantly.

    It is possible to restore ductility by annealing the defects out, and much of the life-extension of nuclear reactors depends on the ability to safely do so. Creep is also greatly accelerated in irradiated materials, though not as a result of the enhanced diffusivities, but rather as a result of the interaction between lattice stress and the developing microstructure.

    Environmentally-assisted cracking or, more specifically, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking IASCC is observed especially in alloys subject to neutron radiation and in contact with water, caused by hydrogen absorption at crack tips resulting from radiolysis of the water, leading to a reduction in the required energy to propagate the crack.
    Generally, major earthquakes are followed by a larger number of aftershocks, decreasing in frequency with time.

    Albedo — The amount of solar radiation that is reflected back off a surface. Alum — A chemical compound that can be processed from clays. It has been used for industrial purposes e. Altitude — Height above sea level. Amplitude — The maximum height of a wave crest or depth of a trough.

    Anglian — One of the glaciations during the last Ice Age, about half a million years ago, when glaciers reached as far south as the Severn—Thames estuaries. Anticline — Upwardly arched folds of Sedimentary rocks put under pressure by movement in the Earth. See syncline Aquifer — One of many types of permeable rock. Pore spaces tiny holes between the grains, or fractures cracks allows water to flow through and accumulate in an aquifer rock.

    Aquiclude — An impermeable layer of rock which water cannot flow through because there are no pore or fracture voids, or such voids are not connected together. Aquitard — A rock with limited permeability that allows some water to pass through it, but at a very reduced rate.

    Elastic and Inelastic Collisions

    Aragonite — An unstable form of calcium carbonate which changes into calcite. Array — An ordered arrangement of seismometers or geophones, the data from which feeds into a central receiver.

    Impulse - Linear Momentum, Conservation, Inelastic & Elastic Collisions, Force - Physics Problems

    Arrival — The appearance of a seismic wave on the seismic record. Arrival time — The time at which a particular wave phase arrives at a detector. Aseismic area — An area that is almost free of earthquakes. Ash — In Limestone Landscapes we use this term to mean small less than 2 mm fragments of rock and volcanic glass ejected during volcanic eruptions. Asthenosphere — The asthenosphere is the ductile part of the Earth just below the lithosphere, including the upper mantle.

    The asthenosphere is about km thick. Atmosphere — The atmosphere is a thin layer of gas and suspended particles surrounding the Earth and is composed mainly of nitrogen and oxygen but also small quantities of argon, carbon dioxide, neon, helium, methane, krypton, nitrous oxide, hydrogen, xenon and ozone in order of decreasing amounts.

    The atmosphere has four layers: Above 80 km the gases begin to thin out eventually leaving just oxygen in its atomic form. Atoll — A reef that formed around an island. The island sank, but the continued growth of the coral resulted in a rounded reef.

    B Barrier reef — A coral reef that started growing close to the shore fringing reefbut due to earth movements is now growing some distance away from it. Barrow —An ancient burial mound. Basin mires — Developed in a waterlogged basin which may be completely enclosed or only a very restricted through-flow of water. Bed — Layer of sedimentary rock.

    Bowling Ball Elastic Collisions

    Beds are built up one on top of the next, separated from each other by bedding planes. Each bed represents a single phase of more or less continuous sedimentation, before a change in conditions or an interruption of sedimentation, forms the bedding plane. Bedding plane — A surface occurring in sedimentary rocks that represent an event that interrupted sedimentation for a time.

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    A plane of deposition, a surface that separates each successive layer of stratified rock. Benthos — Animals and plants living on the bottom of a sea or lake. Biostratigraphy — The classification of rock successions based on fossil content. Biozones — Intervals of rock characterised by a particular fossil species or groups of species. Further subdivisions of these intervals are called Sub-biozones. Blanket mires — Formed on extensive flat or gently sloping ground usually in 'upland' ground.

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    Blind valley — Formed by erosion at a swallow hole, resulting in an uphill facing cliff and a dry valley further down hill. Bodmin Moor — Rugged granite landscape in the hills of south west England.

    Body wave — A seismic wave that travels through the interior of the earth and is not related to a boundary surface. When pure, it is colourless and transparent, or white. It is a very common and widely distributed mineral in the Earth's crust.

    Small quanities of magnesium Mg are often included. It forms a large proportion of limestones. Credit — The period of time between and million years ago. Cambrian — The period of time between and million years ago. Cambrian mountains — Mountains in north Wales made of ancient rocks such as hard slates and volcanic. Capillary action — The ability of water to flow through narrow spaces without the assistance of forces such as gravity. Carbonate Minerals — A group of minerals with different chemical compositions, but all containing the carbonate ion CO3.

    Carboniferous — A period of time between and million years ago. Carbonaceous — A rock or sediment that is rich in carbon. Carbon cycle — The natural cycling of carbon atoms between rocks, vegetation, oceans and the atmosphere. Carbon sink — A part of the carbon cycling where carbon accumulates such as in calcium carbonate rocks. Catchment area — The region from which a river receives its water supply.

    The margin of the area is usually the hill tops that surround it, called the watershed or divide beyond this water flows away into other river systems. Cement — The material, usually a very fine-grained mineral growth, which forms after a rock is deposited and bonds the grains of sediment together.

    Chalk — A soft limestone formed mainly of coccolith skeletons. Charnwood — In Charnwood Forest in Leicestershire very ancient Cambrian slates as well as volcanic rocks stick up above the much younger Triassic mudstones. Cheviot Hills — In northern England, close to the Scottish Southern Uplands, the Cheviot Hills are composed of a great thickness of hard, ancient lavas and intrusions of igneous rocks, covered by a thick layer of peat.

    Chitin — A complex organic compound which forms the horny outer skeleton of some creatures such as insects, crabs and lobsters. Clay — A sedimentary rock with grains smaller than 0.

    Its main mineral is hydrated silicates of aluminium. It is often used to manufacture bricks and pottery. Climate — Average atmospheric conditions of an area. This is controlled by the latitude of the area, which determines how much solar radiation it receives, the distribution of land masses and oceans, the altitude and topography of the area, and the influence of ocean currents.

    Clints — A rectangular block of limestone in a limestone pavement, separated from the neighbouring blocks by fissures clints. Coal — A fossil fuel comprising rocks with a large proportion of fossil plant remains that have been altered to carbon. Coccoliths — Calcareous skeletons of microscopic, single celled, photosynthesising algae called coccolithophores.

    Combe — A hollow or short valley in the side of limestone uplands or chalk down lands in southern England. Coppicing — A traditional method of woodland management involving cutting down young tree stems almost to the ground causing new shoots to grow.

    Coral reef — A structure rising from the sea floor composed of the calcareous skeleton of corals. Correlation — The process of determining the age equivalence of two or more geographically separate rock units.

    Fossils are one of the most important tools for correlation. Corrie — A large, semi-circular hollow in the side of a mountain that was eroded by the action of snow and ice. Corries are found in areas where glaciers once formed. In Wales this type of hollow is called a 'cwm' but the French name 'cirque' is used by some people.

    Crag — In the sense used in limestone landscapes, a cliff of limestone on the side of a hill or steep valley. Cretaceous — The period of time about 65 and million years ago. Cross Fell — Highest point in the Pennine Hills. Chronostratigraphy — The classification of rock successions based on relative age and time relationships. Crust — The outermost solid layer of the Earth up to about 70 km thick. There are two types: Cwm — see 'corrie'.

    Dendritic —Forming a pattern resembling tree branches. Devonian — A period of time between and million years ago. Diagenesis — The process that changes sediment into rock. This happens by the water being squeezed out, mineral grains being organised or chemically changed and the whole being cemented by minerals precipitated from peculating mineralised water. Diatoms — Single celled algae that have interlocking cell walls made of silica.

    Dip slope — see escarpment. Dolerite — A dark coloured igneous rock, intruded into the earth's crust, with medium sized crystals of feldspar, pyroxene and other, less common, minerals.

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    Doline — A depression or hole in the ground formed by the solution of limestone by chemical weathering. Dolomite — A mineral of magnesium carbonate. The rock used to be called dolomite, but as it was possible to confuse dolomite the rock with dolomite the mineralit was decided that the rock should have a different name. Dorset Downs — Part of the largest area of chalk downland in southern England.

    Dry valley — A valley that was formed by rivers when the water table was high or when the ground was frozen, but now abandoned by the river.

    E Earthquake — Shaking of the earth caused by a sudden movement of rock beneath its surface. Earthquake swarm — A series of minor earthquakes, none of which may be identified as the main shock, occurring in a limited area and time. Ecological niche — The role played by an organism in its environment, e.

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